Tableware is the dishes or dishware (ceramic), dinnerware (ceramics and other materials) used for setting a table, serving food and for dining. Tableware can be meant to include cutlery and glassware. The nature, variety, and number of objects varies from culture to culture, religions, and cuisines.
Dishes are usually made of ceramic materials such as earthenware, stoneware, bone china or porcelain, however can be made of other materials such as wood, pewter, silver, gold, glass, acrylic and plastic. Dishes are purchased either by the piece or by set which include either four, eight, or twelve place settings. Individual pieces, such as those needed as replacement pieces for broken dishes, can be purchased from "open stock" inventory at shops, or from antique dealers if the pattern is no longer in production.
Jenis-Jenis material dinnerware:
1.Earthenware- seramik dari tanah liat dibakar dalam api perlahan
Although body formulations vary between countries and even between individual makers, a generic composition is 25% ball clay, 28% kaolin, 32% quartz and 15% feldspar. Earthenware is one of the oldest materials used in pottery. After firing the body is porous and opaque, and depending on the raw materials used will be colored from white to buff to red.
2.Stoneware-seramik tanah liat dan dikilatkan,bewarna keperangan akibat bendasing dalam tanah liat,dibakar dalam api bersuhu tinggi
Stoneware is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic ware made primarily from non-refractory fire clay.
"Stoneware, which, though dense, impermeable and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, and normally only partially vitrified. It may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, and is normally glazed."
3.Bone china-diperbuat menggunakan abu tulang dan batuan mineral
Bone china is a type of soft-paste porcelain that is composed of bone ash, feldspathic material and kaolin. It has been defined as ware with a translucent body containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate. Developed by English potter Josiah Spode, bone china is known for its high levels of whiteness and translucency, and very high mechanical strength and chip resistance.
Bone china is considered as the finest type of porcelain. Calcined bone ash makes up 50% of fine bone china's properties. Without this ash component, the item is not considered as 'authentic' fine bone china. It has its own inherent qualities which are not found in most porcelain, most significant are:
1. It has a silky white color compared to the common grayish color of porcelain.
2. It is much more translucent than porcelain and tends to glow when lighted up from the inside
3. It exudes a special aura when kept in a specially lighted space.
4. It can be made thinner and finer-looking without sacrificing durability
5. By history, it has a reputation as expensive and is associated with wealth and royalty
The production of handmade fine bone china requires a long and complex process by a skilled team of artisans following only the highest standards of quality. This contributes to its high demand and luxury status in the market. CSM adheres to the same formula perfected by Josiah Spode, a renowned English potter in the late 18th century.
4.Porcelain-produk dari tanah liat dan kaolin(batu mineral)
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and 1,400 °C (2,552 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at these high temperatures.
Porcelain is a type of pottery. It was named by the famous explorer Marco Polo when he found some on his visit to China. The name porcelain comes from an Italian word that means “cowry shell.” That’s because Marco Polo thought that the pottery looked like the texture of a seashell!
Porcelain is made from ground up pieces of rock or minerals. They are grinded until they become a powder and they are mixed with a form of clay. The mixture is then heated to over 1400 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hotter than volcanic lava! That’s way too hot to touch!
When it all cools, it becomes hard and shiny. Most of the time, if you shine a light behind a piece of porcelain, you can see a faint, blurry trace of the light through the pottery. Most porcelain is very fragile, meaning it can break easily, so you always want to ask permission before you pick up a piece of it.
5.Opal Glass-atau milk glass,berasal dari silika
Milk glass is an opaque or translucent,milky white or colored glass, blown or pressed into a wide variety of shapes. First made in Venice in the 16th century, colors include blue, pink, yellow, brown, black, and the white that led to its popular name.
‘Opal adalah bentuk amorfis dari silika yang berkaitan dengan kuarsa (bentuk mineraloid-nya, bukan mineral).’
What is Stoneware?
Take a look in your kitchen. What do you see? Mugs, plates, casserole dishes, platters, bowls etc. Many of these things may be made of stoneware. These pieces will either be made in earthenware (a low-fired clay) or in stoneware (a high-fired clay). Earthenware is a white and porous clay that is fired at a low temperature (about 1915 degrees Fahrenheit). (Earthenware is usually called "ceramics" or "ceramic ware".) It is then decorated, glazed with a clear coat and fired. Stoneware is a stronger clay that is fired to a high temperature (about 2185 degrees Fahrenheit) and becomes vitreous. It can then be left undecorated or decorated with colored glazes with an optional clear glaze coating and re-fired.
Stoneware is a clay that when fired to maturity becomes a sturdy, chip resistant material suitable for using in cooking, baking, storing liquids, as serving dishes and to use in the garden. These pieces are meant to be used due to their durability.
How can you tell the difference between stoneware and earthenware?
Pick up a piece in your kitchen (a plate, mug or bowl). Can you tell if it's stoneware, earthenware or porcelain?
First, let's find out if it's porcelain. Porcelain is translucent. (Stoneware and earthenware is not.) Put the piece up against a light. If you can see light through the piece, it's porcelain. If it's completely opaque, it's not porcelain.
Second, let's figure out if it's earthenware or stoneware:
1. Pick up your piece and feel the weight. If it feels pretty dense for its size, that's a good sign that it's stoneware.
2. Look at the bottom. Is it uncoated, undecorated or unglazed on the bottom? Can you see the ware? If you can see it and it is a buff color or darker with a texture, then it is most likely stoneware.
3. Stoneware has the "look" of hand made pottery; it has a texture to it, where earthenware does not. If you have a piece that has a chip in it, take a look at the chipped part. Is it very white and chalky looking? Can you scrape off more of the piece with your fingernail? If you can, then it is probably earthenware. Earthenware, when fired, has a white, chalky look. Stoneware, when fired, has a darker, textured look.
4. Look at your piece. Are there any parts that are unglazed? Is there a textured clay showing through? If yes, it is stoneware.
Differences in an undecorated piece of stoneware and earthenware:
Stoneware: Earthenware (ceramic ware) :
Impervious to water (water tight) Not impervious to water (cannot hold water)
Chip resistant Chips easily
Color: Buff or terra cotta Color: white
Feel: textured Feel: chalky
Look: like pottery Look: rough white
Looks great undecorated or decorated. Can only use when decorated.
Can withstand high/low temp. Cannot withstand high/low temp.
Oven safe Not oven safe
Suited for household use. Suited for decorative use
Painting bisque: Wipe off mistakes. Painting bisque: Cannot correct mistakes
Glazes flow: bisque isnot porous Glazes adheres to bisque: bisque is porous
Firing: Leave the bottom of the piece Paint or glaze the bottom of the piece and stilt on shelf.
dry and place on shelf
Stoneware is great for kitchen/utility pieces because it is so incredibly durable. You can use it in the oven, refrigerator, microwave and dishwasher without harming it. Earthenware cannot withstand very high or low temperatures. You may be able to put an earthenware piece in your oven a few times, but it will eventually crack completely, stoneware will not. Have you seen a pizza or baking stone? This is made of stoneware. Since this clay is initially fired very hot, it can withstand temperature changes.
Stoneware slip is made up of a mixture of high-firing clays that fire to maturity at 2118 � 2284 degrees Fahrenheit or 1159 � 1251 degrees Celsius. It behaves more or less like earthenware (ceramic slip) both in casting and firing (except for the temperature). A ceramist comfortable with earthenware can make the transition to stoneware with little added instruction. The decorating is, in many respects, easier, as you can wipe off mistakes in painting without a trace and start over or just correct.
A brief look back in time.
Traditional ceramics have so far been based on earthenware. In the very long history of ceramics, earthenware clays were used to create the early utilitarian ware, necessary for civilization. Going back more than 50,000 years, shards of earthenware help date the particular period when it was used. Stoneware and porcelain, both high firing clay bodies, arrived much later but are not really newcomers on the scene - they appeared over 2,000 years ago in China and gave birth to very important industries already in those times. It was the availability of kilns that could fire to those higher temperatures rather than the clays themselves that made China the country of origin. European and Middle East ceramics, although very advanced in decorating techniques, was limited to earthenware as they were unable to fire stoneware and porcelain to maturity.
Similarities of stoneware and earthenware:
• Casts in any plaster mold.
• Paint on greenware or bisque.
• Paint with any underglaze, glaze, hybrid (Duncan's Concepts), stain or decal to decorate.
• Clean by traditional methods (dry or wet).
• Perfect for "fun" decorating!
• Microwave an dishwasher safe.